Assessment of Hepatotoxic Effects and Serum Enzyme Changes Induced by Naja melanoleuca Venom in Albino Rats

Yahaya Tijani1, Abubakar Shettima2*, Maryam Saleh Bukar1, Miriam Watafua1, Babagana Modu1, Bulama Burah1, Baba Sale Madu1, Afiniki Mhya Bitrus1, Andrew Onu3 and Hassan Zanna1

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Clinical and Life Sciences, Usmanu Danfodi University

*Corresponding author’s Email:,


Snake envenoming is a crucial problem in west Africa and other parts of the world in which humans and animals are at risk. In this study the intravenous LD50 of Naja melanoleuca venom was investigated using arithmetic method and the histopathological effect of Naja melonoleuca venom was investigated on the liver of albino mice. The serum enzymes Aspartate Transaminase, Alkaline Transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Albumin and Total Protein levels of mice injected with Naja melanoleuca venom at different doses ((0.1mg/kg,0.2mg/kg,0.4mg/kg,0.8mg/kg and 1.6mg/kg)) were also investigated spectrophotometrically. The intravenous LD50 assessment of the venom was found to be 0.93mg/kg. The venom induces various cellular changes on the liver tissue, a typical hepatotoxic effect of Naja venom. There was a significant decrease in the AST and ALT level of the serum compared to the control. A significant increase of about 324.00U/L in the ALP level was observed upon injection of 1.6mg/kg of the venom compared to the control. Significant decrease in the ALB level upon injection of the lowest, medium and the highest venom dose was revealed, likewise a significant increase in the TP level upon administration of 1.6mg venom was observed compared to the control group injected with normal saline. Therefore, these findings are essential to elucidate the mechanism underlying the various cellular changes induced by Naja melanoleuca venom and antivenom development.


Naja melanoleuca,