Effect of the Bitis arietans snake venom obtained from Kaltungo, Nigeria on Liver Oxidative Stress Status and Histological changes in Wistar Albino Rats

1Yahaya Tijani, 2Mada Umoru Alesa, 1*Sani Muhammad Uzairu, 1Babagana Modu, 1Ijudigal Zaria Abilenuwa, 3Muhammad M. Ibrahim, 1Miriam Watafua, 1Madu Adamu Gadaka and 1Hassan Zanna

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2Histology Laboratory, Central Diagnostics, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State
3Department of Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: smuzairu@unimaid.edu.ng, doi.org/10.55639/607qpon


The venom of the Nigerian Bitis arietans (puff adder) was assessed for its ability to trigger venom-induced necrosis as well as oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar albino rats. The snake was captured in Kaltungo Gombe state and the venom was milked and lyophilized accordingly. A single LD50 dose (1.5mg/kg) was administered and the rats were monitored for two weeks and the liver homogenate samples were analyzed for the changes in oxidative stress markers. Histopathology of the liver tissue was conducted to assess the necrotic effect of the venom. The Malondialdehyde (MDA)
values were not significantly changed while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were affected significantly. One week after venom administration, the branching and anastomoses of the hepatocytes in the liver tissue were observed to be not clearly demarcated due to the severity of the necrosis with disintegrated nuclei especially in the wall of the central vein. There was almost total disintegration of the wall of the central vein two weeks after venom administration. The results of this study indicate that the Nigerian puff adder venom can also trigger oxidative stress and promote necrosis in the liver tissue of Wistar albino rats.


Bitis arietans