Hazard Quotient and Hazard Indexes of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Levels in Fish Samples from Gubi Dam, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Ibrahim Mohammed Sani1*, Joseph Clement Akan2 , Abdullateef Baba2, Abdulkareem Mukaila1, Musa Hassan3

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal University of Health Sciences, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria
2Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
3Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author’s Email: Ibrahim.mohammed@fuhsa.edu.ng, doi.org/10.55639/607.383736


This study is aimed at determining the levels of sixteen (16) polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in fish samples from Gubi Dam, Bauchi State. Tilapia dageti (Coptodon fish), Tilapia zilli (Coptodon fish), Alestes baremoze (Pebble fish) and Clarias gariepinius (Catfish) fish species samples of uniform size were colleeted. Four tissues (Liver, flesh, intestine and gills) of the fish species were removed. Extraction and clean-up of the tissues were carried using standard mthods. The levels of the PAHS in the tissues were determined using GC-MS. The results revealed that the highest concentration of PAHs was observed in Tilapia dageti (2.51E-01) while the lowest concentration was observed in Clarias gariepinus (4.97E-02). The estimated daily dose of PAHs in the different fish samples shows Tilapia dageti as having the highest daily dose of 1.3 IE-01 mg/kg was below the tolerable daily dose of fish per capital of 0.07 kg/day for Nigeria as set by FAO, 2008. The excess cancer risk values amongst the fish species relatively showed Tilapia dageti with high risk with a value of 1.08E-01 mg/kg day which are mostly observed in the liver, while Clarias gariepinus show the lower cancer risk with a value of 2.35E-16 mg/kg day1 which are mostly recorded in the intestine. Both the hazard quotient and hazard indexes
were observed to be less than 1. Therefore, there is no appreciable health risk for the development of non-cancer health effect via consumption of PAHs residues from all the four fish samples studied from Gubi Dam.


Gubi Dam,