Infections Associated with Proteus Species and their Drug Resistance Pattern in Northeastern, Nigeria

Isyaka M. Tom1,2*, Usman A. Dutsinma1, Aishatu A. Ibrahim1, Muhammad M. Ibrahim3, Askira M. Umoru2, Jidda B. Umar4

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
4Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

*Corresponding author’s Email:,


This study conducted in North-eastern Nigeria aimed to investigate Proteus species associated with infections across various anatomical sites and assess their susceptibility to commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs. A total of 1,500 clinical samples were collected from patients in selected hospitals. Among these samples, 144 (9.60%) showed the growth of Proteus species, with a higher prevalence in males (65.25%) compared to females (43.75%). Proteus mirabilis was identified as the predominant species (90.97%), followed by Proteus vulgaris (8.33%) and P. Penneri (0.69%). Wound swab samples exhibited the highest isolation rate at 31.94%, followed by urine (15.28%), while diarrheic stool samples had the lowest rate (6.25%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that the isolates were highly sensitive to Levofloxacin (87.50%), Ciprofloxacin (72.92%), Meropenem (67.36%), and Ofloxacin (65.28%). Conversely, they demonstrated high resistance to Ampicillin (84.72%) and Nalidixic acid (81.94%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was prevalent, with P. Penneri showing the highest MDR phenotype (100.0%), followed by P. mirabilis (88.54%) and P. vulgaris (66.67%). Although the distribution of MDR Proteus strains across various hospitals was not statistically significant, SSH Maiduguri recorded the highest rate of isolation (20.60%). Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) was present in all isolates, with the MAR index ranging from 0.13 to 0.96. The study concludes that Proteus species contribute to nosocomial infections in the region, with Proteus mirabilis being the primary etiological agent. Multidrug resistance among Proteus species is widespread in the study area, limiting treatment options for critically ill patients.


Antimicrobial resistance,
Multidrug resistance,