Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination: Its Effects and Treatment Approaches – A Mini Review

1Ismail, H. Y., 2Grema, M. N., 1Isa, M. A. 1Allamin, I. A., 1Bukar, U. A., 3Adamu, A. and 4Fardami, A. Y.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Umar Ali Shikafi Polytechnic, Sokoto, Sokoto State Nigeria
4Department Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto State Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


Petroleum hydrocarbons are among the major driving forces of advancement in the last Century. Some of the hydrocarbons are however of health and environmental significance, due to their recalcitrance and persistence leading to adverse effects on health and ecosystem stability. Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products has been recognized as a significant and serious problem. Most components of oil are toxic to humans and wildlife in general, as it is easily incorporated into the food chain. This fact has increased scientific interest in examining the distribution, fate and behaviour of oil and its derivatives in the environment. The potential danger which petroleum hydrocarbons pose to humans and the environment makes testing and treatment unavoidable. As a result, a number of investigations over several years have led to the discovery of treatment technologies including physical, chemical, thermal and biological processes. Attempts to present a concise review on the status of hydrocarbon contamination, its effects on microorganisms, plants, animals and the ecosystem have been made. Different treatment technologies with their advantages and setbacks are also presented. This would enlighten individuals and stakeholders on the dangers pose by the petroleum products especially that oil prospecting in the Northeastern Nigeria is been intensified