Phytochemical Evaluation and Acute Oral Toxicity of Aqueous leaf Extract of Ficus abutilifolia (Miq) in Mice

Usman Ahmad1, Nura Salisu1 and Dahiru Sani2*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, 810006, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, 810006, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


Several species of the genus Ficus have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial and pharmacological effects. Extracts from the leaves of Ficus abutilifolia are used traditionally to treat various infectious diseases by indigenous communities of Nigeria with little or no data on the acute oral toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct qualitative phytochemical screening and evaluate the acute oral toxicity

of Ficus abutilifolia (Miq) aqueous leaves extract in mice. Fresh leaves of Ficus abutilifolia were collected from the field at Anguwan Daudu Tsauni, Giwa LGA., Kaduna State. The plant was authenticated and the leaves air dried and milled into powder. The powdered sample was macerated with water and allowed to stand for 24 hours. The qualitative phytochemical evaluation and LD50 was carried out, also, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were conducted using standard techniques. Results of phytochemical constituents showed the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, carbohydrates, saponins, and terpenoids. The LD50 was found to be > 2000 mg/kg with no obvious signs of toxicity and death over the 14 days period. Significant (p < 0.05) elevation was observed in the TWBC of the mice administered Ficus abutilifolia (Miq). There was no significant (p > 0.05) increase in the AST, ALP, BUN and creatinine levels when compared to the normal control. In conclusion, LD50 of Ficus abutilifolia (Miq) was shown to be greater than 2000mg/kg with no observed toxicity sign; hence, the plant possesses a wide margin of safety.


Acute oral toxicity,
Ficus abutilifolia,