Phytochemical Quality and Antibacterial Activity of Triclisia patens Oliv. Root Extract

Agbonomaire Stephanie Ogbebor and Chukwunazum Joel Otu

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


The resistance to drugs by microorganisms has been on the increase despite the production of new antibiotics. Thus, it is necessary to further explore natural products to solve the problem of lingering treatment failures. This study aimed to assess the phytochemical quality and antibacterial efficacy of Triclisia patens Oliv. root extract. Cold maceration method was used to obtain the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts. Standard methods were applied to assay for the phytochemical constituents who include; alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenols using the ethyl acetate extract. The antibacterial activity and the minimum inhibition concentration were determined using agar well diffusion and agar dilution method respectively. The test organisms used were Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp. Following phytochemical screening, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids were discovered to be present. The inhibition zone diameters of the ethyl acetate extracts were 13.00 mm, 13.70 mm, and 20.00 mm against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively, while no inhibition zones were reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp. The aqueous extract revealed inhibition zone of 24.00 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, but no inhibition against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethyl acetate extract was 50.00 mg/mL, 3.12 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The MIC for the aqueous extract was greater than 100 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. The ethyl acetate extract showed better antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens compared to the aqueous extract. The outcome of the study has validated the ethnomedicinal uses of Triclisia patens Oliv. and shown that it can be used as a source of pharmacological compounds.


Tropical plant,
In vitro,