Prevalence and Phenotypic Identification of Mosquitoes Species within the University of Maiduguri Community, Maiduguri, Northeast Nigeria

Ali Mohammed1, Babagana K. Kayeri1, Mohammed Haruna Timta2, Larema M. Moddibo1, Yagana Ahmed Gazali3, Salamatu M. Tukur1, Fufa Ido Gimba1, Bem Bartholomew Ijoh1, Ephraim A. Malgwi1, Chahari A. Midala1, Halima P. Mshelia1, Abwari D. Bwala4 and Garleya Bilbonga5

1Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Science, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
5Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

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Mosquitoes, characterized by their slender bodies, long legs, prominent eyes, and narrow wings adorned with fringe-bearing scales, play a vital role in public health as disease vectors. The prevalence of mosquitoes in an environment is influenced by a complex interplay of breeding conditions and environmental factors. This study, conducted from February to August 2019, aimed to assess the prevalence and distribution of mosquito genera in the University of Maiduguri area. A total of 903 mosquito specimens were collected using trapping methods, and morphological identification was performed based on specific characteristics. The indoor resting adults were categorized into three main genera based on morphological characteristics: Anopheles (546 individuals, 60.5%), Culex (312 individuals, 34.6%), and Aedes (45 individuals, 4.98 Habitat sampling, conducted using dippers and pipettes, aimed to identify mosquito breeding sites in five categories: containers, stagnant pools, domestic run-offs, gutters, and tree-holes/leaf axils. The study documented the presence of mosquitoes throughout the year, highlighting the persistence of these vectors in the area. Analysis of mosquito species composition revealed Anopheles as the most prevalent genus (Male=199, Female=347), followed by Culex (Male=192, Female=120), and Aedes (Male=22, Female=23), with Aedes being the least abundant. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference (p≥0.05) between Anopheles and the other two genera, suggesting that the University of Maiduguri offers favorable conditions for the breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes. Contributing factors to this observation include a rising human population, dense plant vegetation influencing humidity, and inadequately managed sewage drainage, fostering mosquito proliferation. The study emphasizes the critical need for ongoing monitoring and effective vector control measures in the University of Maiduguri area to mitigate the public health risks linked to mosquito-borne diseases.