Proximate Composition, Amino Acids and Fatty Acids Profile O Citrullus Vulgaris (Guna) Seeds

Ndahi Tarhyel Ezekiel1, Hyelvidzira Haruna Mshelia2, Mshelia Ladi Peter1, Milala Muhammad Adamu2, Peter Danjuma1, Badau Mamudu Halidu1, Kassum Afodia Llitini1, Kyari Bawagana1 and Lawan Hadiza Kubra1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria;

*Corresponding author’s Email:,


Citrullus vulgaris (guna) seeds have significant potential to meet the growing nutritional demands in Sub-Saharan Africa due to their rich nutrient composition. This study aimed to determine the proximate composition, amino acid, and fatty acid profiles of these seeds. Using AOAC methods, the analysis revealed that C. vulgaris seeds contain 4.75% moisture, 3.12% ash, 23.74% protein, 28.44% fats, 19.46% fiber, 20.99% carbohydrates, and 434.88 kcal/100g energy. The amino acid profile showed high levels of glutamic acid (10.12g/100g protein), aspartic acid (8.28g/100g protein), and leucine (6.80g/100g protein), with cysteine (0.50g/100g protein) being the lowest. Essential amino acids like leucine (6.80g/100g protein), lysine (3.89g/100g protein), valine (3.85g/100g protein), phenylalanine (3.46g/100g protein), and isoleucine (3.31g/100g protein) were abundant, while tryptophan (1.17g/100g protein) and methionine (1.31g/100g protein) were limiting. The seeds contained 70.25g/100g protein of total amino acids, with 40.53% essential and 59.47% non-essential amino acids. The fatty acid profile indicated high oleic acid (42.04%), linoleic acid (20.84%), palmitic acid (13.02%), and stearic acid (10.95%). The total unsaturated fatty acids (63.30%) exceeded saturated fatty  acids (36.70%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (20.84%) were lower than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (42.46%). The study concludes that the high protein, fat, and essential amino acid content of C. vulgaris seeds and oil can improve dietary protein quality and energy density, thus helping to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition and promoting healthy diets.


C. vulgaris seeds,
Essential amino acids,
Fatty acids,
Plant-based nutrients