Removal of Heavy Metals using Biocoagulants for Wastewater Treatment:
Characterization and Adsorption Studies

F.U. Mukhtar, A.L. Yaumi*, A.S. Girei and H. Umar

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State

*Corresponding Author:


Wastewater is of major concern especially in developing country like Nigeria. Wastewater commonly consist of heavy metals such as Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, and Iron which proves to be highly unwanted due to their toxicity, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. In this work, the bioadsorbent was prepared from the biocoagulants for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater. The prepared bioadsorbent before adsorption (MOP) and after adsorption (MOP1) were characterized using, Fourier Transform Infra-Red, Energy Dispersive X-ray and Scanning Electron Microscopy to determine the functional group, surface morphology and elemental composition respectively. The resulting adsorbent were tested for the adsorption of Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, and Iron. Furthermore, characterization showed that the presence of OH-, NH2 and C=O functional groups present before adsorption in MOP enhance the removal of metal. The SEM images showed the presence of micro pores while the presence of high Carbon content in the prepared MOP enhanced the heavy metal uptake. A maximum adsorption capacity of 7.9 mg/g was obtained for Lead while Chromium, Iron, Zinc and Cadmium have adsorption capacities of 7.2 mg/g, 8.0 mg/g, 8.0 mg/g and 7.5 mg/g respectively.

Keyword: Moringa, Okra, Pumpkin, Characterization, Adsorption, Biocoagulant, FTIR