Toxicity and Health Effects of Heavy Metals in Soil, Water and Edible Plants in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

J. Waida1 *U. Rilwan2, Andrew Adamu2, S. I. Ikpughul2 and Atef El Taher3

1Department of Physics, Borno State University, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2*Department of Physics, Nigerian Army University, Biu, Borno State, Nigeria
3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452, Egypt

*Corresponding author:,


The toxicity of heavy metal is obviously a major threat and has various health hazard related to it. This work unveils the accumulation of heavy metals in Jos South using XRF. The results of this study showed that the Geo-Accumulation Index (Igeo) of water for different metals is decreasing in order of Cd (0.15) > Cr and As (0.03) > Pb (-0.13) > Ni (-0.6). Heavy metals in soil decrease in the order of As and Cd (0.4) > Ni, Cr and Pb (0.2). The heavy metals in different plants is in decreasing order of Cd (0.512) > As (0.25) > Pb (0.23) > Ni (0.01) > Ni (-0.06). 26% of these points are uncontaminated, except few points which are found within the uncontaminated to moderately contaminate level. It can be concluded that the area falls within uncontaminated-moderately contamination which calls for regulation. Hence this study can be used as a reference data for regulatory bodies like NNRA and the rest.


Heavy Metals,
Geo-Accumulation Index