Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test of Salmonella Species Isolated from Two Drinks (Zobo and Kunun-Aya) Sold at University of Maiduguri, Campus, Borno State, Nigeria

1Adama A. Bwala, 2Jasini A. Musa, 1Aliyu Isa and 2Ahmadu Umaru

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ramat Polytechnic, Maiduguri, Borno State
2Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State

Corresponding Author:,


The research was conducted to isolate and conduct an antimicrobial susceptibility test of Salmonella species from Zobo and Kunun-aya drinks sold at the University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. A total of 150 samples were collected from different sales points using a systematic sampling technique. The samples were analysed using standard bacteriological procedures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The results showed that 38(25.3%) samples were positive for Salmonella. Kunun-aya drink has 28(37%), and Zobo has 5(6.7%) of the Salmonella isolates, which indicated that Kunun aya had the highest level of contamination than Zobo drink.
The Salmonella isolates were sensitive to Tarivid 18(24%), Ciprofloxacin 18(24%), Gentamycin 18(24%), and Ampillicin 15(20%). It was found resistant to Nalidixic acid 14(19%), Augmentin 14(19%) and Septrin 9(12%). The contamination observed in the Kunun-aya, and less contamination in Zobo drinks may be due to the product used and improper sanitary conditions during its processing. The presence of Salmonella in the beverages may pose serious public health concerns as some of this bacterium is implicated in causing foodborne diseases, thus the need to develop Good Manufacturing Processes (GMP) and post production preservation and packaging techniques.