Biodiesel Production using Balanite aegyptica (Desert Date) Seed as Raw Material

1Abdulhamid, M. R., 1Ali, A. A., 1Grace, F. A., 1Kaltum, U. M., 1Hafsah, M. A., 3Adeboye M. M., 2Musa, I., 1Usman A. B., 1Hauwa M. A., 1Hosea, S. H.,1Falmata B. M. D. and 1Abdulwahab, I

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
3Department of Biological Sciences (Microbiology Unit) Faculty of Science, Confluence University of Science and Technology, Osara, Kogi State

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Biodiesel is a substitute to diesel fuel prepared from renewable resources and it is becoming popular because of its nontoxic and biodegradable nature. This study was to investigate the Potential of Balanite aegyptica (Desert date) seed for biodiesel production along with the assessment of its performance in Internal Combustion engine. The Balanites aegyptiaca kernels were crushed using pestle and mortar to obtain the seeds for further analysis. The seeds were collected, washed and prepared. The results after proximate analysis revealed that B. aegyptiaca seed contain considerable percentage of Crude lipid content with a percentage mean of 39.37 %, followed by Crude protein Content with 33.14 %, Crude Fiber content 13.56 %, Carbohydrate content 7.46 %, Moisture 3.1 %, and Ash content 2.85 %. The results also show the mean concentration of some elements with Potassium 1.150 (mg/g), Sodium 0.940 (mg/g), Calcium 0.313 (mg/g), Zinc 0.018 (mg/g) while Iron and Manganese have a mean concentration of 0.010 (mg/g) and 0.010 (mg/g) respectively. Magnesium was found to have least concentration of 0.004 (mg/g). The seed oil was extracted using soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was then subjected to trans-esterification through the addition of catalyst (potassium hydroxide). The percentage yield of oil extraction was 41.9%. The GCMS analysis identified the presence of seven components in the oil as shown by the peaks on the chromatogram. The identified components were C8H16O (Octanal), C9H16O2 (Lactone), C16H32O2 (Palmitic acid), C18H34O2 (Elaidic acid), C19H38O2 (Methyl stearate), CH3 C18H34O2 (Oleic acid) and C18H36O2 (Stearic acid). Similarly, the spectrum of all the components was studied. The density of the produced biodiesel was also determined and the results showed that 0.83 g/ml was the density obtained after the seed oil undergoes transesterification. This study reveals that Balanites aegyptiaca seed is a good biomass for biodiesel production and the oil can be used for domestic and industrial purposes if richly exploited.


Balanite aegyptica,