Effect of Oral Administration of 3-Methylmorphine (Codeine) Induced Renal Toxicity in Adult Wistar Albino

1Y. Ayuba and 2M. S. Saleh

1Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Kano State Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: yohanaayuba15@gmail.com


Codeine (3-Methylmorphine) is the most common opiate consumed worldwide, it is widely used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal activities. The study aims to determine the effect of oral administration of codeine induced renal toxicity in adult Wistar Albino Rats. Twenty albino rats weighing between 150-200g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Group A served as the control group. Group B received 30mg/kg, group C received 60mg/kg and group D received 90mg/kg codeine orally for 28 days. Data obtained were calculated for one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by a Post Hoc test. Results were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statement of differences was based on significance level at p<0.05. The results showed a slight decrease in the mean values of Na+ , Cl- , and HCO3 – levels which are not significant, while K+ level showed an increase in group B and C followed by a decrease in group D which were not statistically significant (p<0.05). Creatinine level did not show any variation when compared with the control group but there was an increase in urea level which was also not statistically significant at p<0.05. Photomicrographs of rat’s kidneys in the treatment group showed; degeneration of the glomerulus, hydrophobic changes in the renal tubular lumen, fatty tissue, multi-focal interstitial haemorrhages, infiltration of inflammatory lymphoid cells, mild mononuclear cells infiltration in the renal cortex and mass aggregation of lymphoid cells in the cellular medullar when compared to control.

Keyword: Albino Rats, Codeine, Renal toxicity, Oral Administration.