Oral Acute Toxicity Study on Methanol Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr Stem Bark in Rats

1Hauwa Adamu, 2Amina Ahmed, 1Joseph Vandi Zirahei, 1Samaila Musa Chiroma, and 1Nathan Isaac Dibal

1Department of Human Anatomy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
2School of Nursing, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author: nathandibal@unimaid.edu.ng


Anogeissus leiocarpus is a herb used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. This study was aimed at evaluating the acute toxicity of methanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (MEAL) stem bark in rats. In phase I, Nine rats were distributed into three groups of three rats each. The groups received MEAL at 10mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 1000mg/kg respectively. In phase II, Three rats were separated into three groups. Each rat received MEAL at 1600mg/kg, 2900mg/kg and 5000mg/kg respectively. All the rats were monitored for two weeks and euthanized thereafter. Serum creatinine, ALT, urea and AST levels were evaluated. The liver and kidney were processed for light microscopy. A significant decrease in urea and ALT levels were observed in rats that received MEAL at 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg relative to control. AST level was significantly elevated in rats treated with 100mg/kg and 1000mg/kg MEAL when related to the control rats. The kidneys of rats that received 5000mg/kg MEAL showed mild distortion of renal tubules. The liver of rats that received MEAL at 1600mg/kg and 2900mg/kg shows enlarged sinusoids while the liver of rats that received 5000mg/kg showed few hepatic vacuoles. Conclusively, administration of MEAL causes no mortality in rats with few signs of toxicity. It also showed normal liver and kidney functions with mild histological aberrations of the liver and kidneys at 5000mg/kg. Hence, the LD50of MEAL is above 5000mg/kg and the extract is safe.

Keywords and Phrases:

Anogeissus leiocarpus,
renal tubules,
toxicity and vacuoles