Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Lower Kubanni River Basin Zaria, Nigeria

1Jabir, Abdulkadir, 2Yusuf, Yakubu Obadaki and 2Jibrin, Abdullahi

1Department of Basic Science, Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

*Corresponding Author:


Groundwater is the most common source of drinking water in most developing countries including Nigeria, the diverse nature of human activities within lower Kubanni may result in a negative impact on most water resources including groundwater. This research was conducted to examine the effect of different activities/land uses within lower Kubanni and relate them with groundwater quality from the borehole and shallow wells. A purposive sampling technique was adopted for the collection of water samples. The samples were obtained from the closest sources of groundwater to the lower course of Kubanni River. A total of eight water samples were used for this study, four from boreholes and four from shallow wells. Seventeen physicochemical and bacteriological parameters were analyzed which include: odour, taste, colour, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), hardness, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, calcium (Ca), Mg, Fe, Pb, Cr and total coliform. Land use Land Cover (LULC) analysis was carried out using the GIS technique to classify the different activities taking place within the study area. Findings from this study revealed that groundwater from both borehole and shallow wells across the study area had all the physical parameters alongside total coliform within the WHO and NSDWQ threshold. However, some physicochemical parameters such as TDS (470-1650 mg/L), hardness (434-1050 mg/L), Ca (231-405 mg/L), Fe (0.8 mg/L), Pb (0.6-1.02 mg/L) and Cr (0.2-0.6 mg/L) were above the WHO and NSDWQ limits. The LULC analysis shows the built-up area covers the largest portion of 42% followed by cultivation with 36%, bare land makes up 20% while water body covered only 2%. The study recommends that groundwater within lower Kubanni should not be taken without proper treatment as any of the samples fully complied with the WHO/NSDWQ limits.

Keywords and Phrases:

Land use,
Lower Kubanni,
Shallow well,
Water quality