Phytochemical, Nutritional, Toxicity and Antihypertensive Properties of Methanol Root Extract of Beta vulgaris Lam

1Adamu I. Zadva, *1Mustapha A. Tijjani, 1Fanna I. Abdulrahman, 2Shamaki B. Usman, Ali M. 3Fulata, 1James Yakubu, 4Mohammed Idris

1Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State
2Department of Veterinary Physiology and Toxicology, University of Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria
3Department of Remedial Science, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author’s Email:,


The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemicals and also analyze the antihypertensive effects of Beta vulgaris with a view to determining the efficacy of the plant as an antihypertensive. Five kilograms (5 kg) of Beta vulgaris were exhaustively extracted using the cold infusion method (maceration) with 85% methanol. The specimen was analyzed for proximate and elemental contents. The extract of Beta vulgaris was phytochemically screened and evaluated for its toxicity and antihypertensive effect using Wistar strain rats. The results of proximate content revealed that the percentages of moisture, fibre, protein, ash, dry matter, and carbohydrates were 82.72, 5.83.00, 6.21, 2.00, 1.00, 17.28, and 2.25%, respectively. Micro and macro elements such as Fe (0.08), Cd (0.03), Mn (1.37), Zn (0.09), Pb (0.18), Na (2.35), and anions NO32-(4.90), SO42-(19.00), and PO42-(4.20) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The crude extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals using standard methods and revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and carbohydrates. The acute toxicity level was determined by Lorke’s method, and the crude extract was considered safe with an oral LD50 of 3807.8 mg/kg bwt in rats. The crude extract of Beta vulgaris significantly reduced (p<0.05) blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive rats in dose-dependent manner when compared with the standard antihypertensive drug. The highest reduction was observed on day seven with reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, MAP and HTR, 132±2.44, (26.26), 85±1.6, 109.2±2.44, 70.20±1.67 at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Therefore, the folkloric claim for the use of this plant, Beta vulgaris, as a remedy to hypertension has scientific support, as examined.


Beta vulgaris,
Proximate Content,
Elemental Content,
Acute Toxicity