Prevalence Of Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus in Raw Milk and its Products Sold for Human Consumption in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Concern

Wulgo, A. M., Sadiq, M. A* ., Jajere, S. M., Adamu, S. G., Musa, H. I., Tijjani, A. O., Mohammed, S., and Mohammed, A

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069 Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


Globally, milk represents an important human nutrition. However, it also serves as an important vehicle for transmission of foodborne pathogens some of which may be multidrug resistant. The current study was undertaken with the main aim of assessing the microbiological quality of raw milk and its products consumed in Maiduguri metropolis. Fresh milk was sampled from six different milk source outlets in the metropolis and the samples were subjected to standard microbiological procedures for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 120 milk samples collected and cultured on appropriate growth and differential media and further biochemical tests were carried out in order to determine the presence of E. coli and S. aureus. A total of 66 (55.0%) of the 120 samples were contaminated with bacteria, while 54 (45.0%) milk samples tested were negative for the contaminants. Contaminating bacteria comprised 51 (42.5%) and 43 (35.8%) of S. aureus and E. coli respectively. The mean pH of the milk samples ranges from 3.3 to 6.3 respectively in ―Kindirmo‖ and fresh milk with an overall mean pH of 3.9. A high prevalence of both pathogens was detected in ―Kindirmo‖ and ―Nono‖ fermented milk products. Overall, a statistically significant association was found between the detection of Escherichia coli (p = 0.046) and Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.013) with the different types of milk samples examined. Our findings of the high prevalence of these pathogens in readily consumed fresh milk and its products in the study area raise public health concerns. Therefore, we recommended the application of strict quality control and good hygienic standards along the milk value chain by application of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). Public health awareness of the health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated milk or its products is also highly recommended.


Escherichia coli, Milk Milk products, Maiduguri S. aureus