Phytochemistry and Acute Toxicity Testing of Balanites aegyptiaca DEL (Zygophyllaceae) Leaf Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats

1Biu, A. A., 2Buratai, L. B., *1Onyiche, E.T. 3Auwal, M. S., 2Ruth, P. A. and 2Ibrahim, M. M

1Department of Veterinary Parasitology & Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
3Departments of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


This study evaluated the phytochemical components and
the acute toxicity of Balanites aegyptiaca leaf aqueous extract in albino rats. The crude extract was subjected to phytochemical evaluation using standard protocol while the acute toxicity testing was carried out using albino rats and the LD50 was computed by the arithmetic method of Karbal. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of high scores for tannins, saponins and flavonoids, and moderate scores for general carbohydrates, terpenes, and alkaloids, while glycosides and reducing sugars showed low scores. The median lethal dose (LD50) was calculated as 700 mg/kg and is associated with clinical signs of weakness, depression, transient anorexia, and roughened hair coat which were immediate, while in coordination, lordosis, ophthalmia, coma and death occurred at about 120 minutes. In conclusion, Balanites aegyptiaca leaf aqueous extract contains bioactive components and is moderately safe for therapeutic studies.


Acute Toxicity,
Balanitesaegyptiaca Leaf,
Aqueous Extract,
Albino rats