Seed removal and fate of Carapa oreophila Kenfack (Meliaceae) across time and habitat in an Afromontane forest landscape

Aliyu Babable,1* Amina Haruna Aliyu1, Sani Sale1 and Abdullahi Shuaibu2

1Department of Botany, Gombe State University, PMB 127, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria
2Department of Environmental and Life Sciences Education, Modibbo Adamawa University, Yola

*Corresponding author’s Email:,


The genus Carapa, popularly known as crabwood in English and andiroba in Portuguese belongs to the tropical plant family Meliaceae, are associated with flood plains, river banks, and in Montane forests. Members of this genus are distributed throughout 30 African countries, including Cameroon, Nigeria and along the equator to the southern Senegal and Mali. The tree produce large fruit contain large seeds, which require large frugivores for its dispersal. Many pre- and post-dispersal factors, particularly seed characteristics and environmental factors have been identified to affect the hoarding behaviour of scartehoading rodents, thereby affecting seedling recruitment. This study was conducted to quantify the number of seeds (>30 mm in diam.) that were predated, hoarded or lost in each of the three habitats (Core, Edge and Fragment). The fate of removed C. oreophila seeds relative to fragmentation and among first, second, third and fourth seasons, were observed. This study depict that there is little difference in seed fate between Core and Edge, and that Fragment differs in many instances of seed fate and season. Seed predation was highest with very low dispersal in fragmented habitat than in the Core and Edge habitats.


Dispersal, Scatterhoarding rodents,
Forest habitats