Histochemical Demonstration of Fungi in Breast Diseases at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital-North Eastern Nigeria

Chiwar HM1,2, Suleiman N1, , Zarami AB3,4, Ahmed M1,4, Bulama HU4 and Ahmed UM4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical = Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
2African Centre of Excellence for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Forensic Biotechnology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
3Department of Human Pathology, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
4Department of Histopathology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Borno State, Nigeria

*Corresponding author: alaskiry@gmail.com, doi.org/10.55639/607.858483


Breast disease is a global public health concern, and recent research suggests that fungal infections may be linked to its development and progression. This study aims to investigate the presence of fungi in formalin-fixed paraffinembedded (FFPE) breast tissue samples diagnosed with various breast diseases, including breast cancer, using histological staining techniques. The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional study that used convenience sampling to retrieve 49 breast tissue blocks diagnosed with various breast diseases from the Histopathology archive of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The samples were re-embedded with paraffin wax, sectioned, and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin and Grocott Methanamine Silver Stain. The data collected was analyzed descriptively and using chi-square tests. Fibroadenoma was the most common diagnosis in the study (69.3%), followed by Chronic Granulomatous Mastitis (18.4%) and breast cancer (12.2%). The highest frequency of Fibroadenoma diagnosis was in the age range of 30-39, whereas the highest frequency of breast cancer diagnosis was in the age range of 20-29. The study found that fungal infections were present in breast tissue samples, and the highest percentage of positive Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain test results were found in breast disease cases with breast cancer with a significant p value of 0.0175. This study provides evidence of a potential association between fungal infections and breast diseases in North Eastern Nigeria. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying this association and its implications for breast cancer prevention and treatment.


Breast cancer,
Fungal infections,
Histochemical staining,
FFPE tissue,
Cross-sectional study