Parasitological contamination of two water sources in Adamawa-North Senatorial zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Musa Y. Tula1*, Onaiwu I. Enabulele2 and Endurance A. Ophori2

1Department of Biological Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, P.M.B 35 Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154 Ugbowo, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria

*Corresponding author:,


This study examined the parasitological contamination of well and river water sources, which are among the significant sources of water in the Adamawa-North Senatorial Zone. Water samples were collected aseptically from upstream and downstream of 4 rivers and 32 hand-dug wells between June 2019 to April 2020. The samples were examined for parasitic contamination by sedimentation and staining methods. A total of 149 (58.2%) parasites belonging to six species were detected. Of these, 85(66.4%) and 64(50.0%) were from river and well sources respectively. The parasites detected includes a trematode (Fasciola hepatica), a protozoan (Giardia lamblia), and four nematodes (Strongyloides stercoralis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Ancylostoma duodenale). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most abundant parasite detected with a prevalence of 21.9%, and the least was F. hepatica (3.1%). The overall prevalence was higher in rainy season 85(66.4%) than in dry season 64(50.0%) but with no statistical difference (P=0.335). River water had the highest number of parasites in both rainy 47(73.4%) and dry seasons 38(59.4%). Also, river water in both dry and rainy periods had the highest number of A. lumbricoides, A. duodenale, T. trichiura, and F. hepatica. The highest number of S. stercoralis was detected only in the dry season of river water. Well water harbored the highest number of G. lamblia in dry and rainy seasons. Furthermore, A. lumbricoides was also highest in well water during the dry period. Based on Local Government Area (LGA), Mubi-North LGA had the highest number of parasites, but with no statistical difference from those of the other 3 LGAs (P=0.312). As observed in this study, the high prevalence of contamination by parasitic organisms of public health importance is of alarming concern. This is because there is no provision of pipe-borne water in the study area, and the available major sources of water may not be suitable for domestic use due to their high parasitic content.